- 1 Detect different types of diabetes
- 2 Normal range of glucose level
- 3 Tests for diabetes Type-2
- 4 Tests for diabetes Type-1
- 5 Tests for Gestational diabetes
- 6 Taking the blood glucose test done at home
- 7 Treatments for type-2, type-1 and gestational diabetes
- 8 FAQ’s:
- 9 Reference:
Blood sugar or glucose is an important constituent of blood that gives energy to your body. When the amount of blood sugar goes beyond a normal limit, a person becomes diabetic. This overall degrades the person’s health over the period of time. Diabetes basically increases the risk of heart stroke, kidney failure, eye diseases, hearing impairments and many other health complications. Therefore, it is important to track your blood sugar level by getting the diabetes blood test done.
Detect different types of diabetes
It normally takes time for the symptoms of diabetes to appear. If your diabetes is not diagnosed at the early stage, it can leads to several health complications. Therefore, many doctors, health care practitioners and those who are health conscious prefer to get the sugar test done regularly. This not only helps them to diagnose their diabetes and its type but also helps in diabetes management.
There are mainly three types of diabetes:
- Type-2 diabetes
- Type-1 diabetes
- Gestational diabetes
For diagnosing each type of diabetes, there are different types of tests done. However, fasting plasma glucose and random blood glucose test are common type of diabetes test. Also, anyone who wants to know their blood sugar levels can go for the diabetes test. However, your risk for diabetes increases if you are overweight, high blood pressure, older than 45 years or have a family history of diabetes.
Normal range of glucose level
A healthy person, who does not have diabetes, has a normal fasting glucose range of 72-99 mg/dL while their post glucose range can be upto 140 mg/dL after 2 hours of meal.
People with diabetes either type-1or type-2, have a normal range of blood sugar level upto 100 mg/dL while fasting. However, it can be upto 180 mg/dL after 2 hours of meal.
The normal range of urine glucose level is upto 14 mg/dL. If you are going for the urine test for diabetes and your urine glucose level is higher then you are a diabetic.
Blood Glucose Range
Fasting Values Ref Range
|Post Meal Values Ref Range
|Up to 140 mg/dL
|Type 1 Diabetic
||Up to 100 mg/dL
||Up to 180 mg/ dL
|Type 2 Diabetic
||Up to 100 mg/dL
Up to 180 mg/ dl
||Up to 14 mg/dL
Tests for diabetes Type-2
In a person with diabetes type-2, body produces enough insulin but not able to use it efficiently. There are a number of symptoms which indicates that a person is diabetic.
Tests that are done for diagnosing or tracking diabetes type-2 include:
- Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test: If you are going for FPG test, you are supposed to give the blood sample empty stomach or after fasting. Blood is taken from the vein in arm or your finger tip to calculate your blood sugar amount. If your blood sugar level is 99mg/dL or lower then you have fbs normal range. People with prediabetes have a normal value of 100 to 125 mg/dL. Those who have sugar level higher than 126mg/dL have diabetes.
- Random Plasma Glucose (RPG) test: In random blood sugar test, you are not required to fast. You can give blood even after the meals. A doctor can prescribe you this type of diabetes test when you have unintended weight loss, partial loss of vision, frequent urination or dehydration. If your random sugar range is 200mg/dL or higher then you have diabetes.
- Hemoglobin A1c test: Average sugar test levels are determined in this test. Average of blood glucose level is measured over the past three months. People with diabetes get this test done so that they can track their blood sugar levels. When Hemoglobin A1c level is below 5.7% then you have a normal diabetes level. You have prediabetes, if your HbA1c level is between 5.7 and 6.4% while the higher values show you are diabetic.
Tests for diabetes Type-1
It is bit difficult to diagnose diabetes type-1. Generally, a lot of people do not see any symptom of diabetes type-1 other than feeling fatigue. Hence, your doctor can ask you to get the diabetes test done. Also, if there is a history of diabetes in your family then also you can be asked for diabetes test.
Some of the common tests for diabetes type-1 are:
- Urine test: Doctors may ask you to take the Urine sugar test procedure if they suspect that you may have type-1 diabetes. When your body stops making insulin, ketone bodies are produced when fat tissue is used for energy needs. Therefore, to diagnose the diabetes, the level of ketone bodies are check in urine sample. A specialised dipstick is dipped into a sample of urine to know the glucose level.
- C-peptide: C-peptide is produced by the pancreas. If a person suffers from diabetes, then production of C-peptide also gets lowered along with the production of insulin. Like other tests for diabetes, in this test also a blood sample is taken via syringe. The normal range of C-peptide is between 0.5 and 2.0 nanograms per millilitre. These values can fluctuate to high or low when your body produce high or low insulin respectively.
- Insulin autoantibodies: This type of test helps in detecting antibodies that target insulin produced in your body. The immune system of the people with diabetes type1 targets and destroys insulin.
Apart from these, Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test and Random Plasma Glucose (RPG) test are also done to diagnose type-1 diabetes. Hemoglobin A1c may not be efficient in giving the accurate results in diabetes type-1.
Tests for Gestational diabetes
During pregnancy, some women are diagnosed with gestational diabetes. It is a condition that happens when your body is not able to make the efficient use of insulin which it needs for supporting your pregnancy. It is mainly caused due to the hormonal changes in your body during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can affect the growth of baby in womb and may leads to breathing issues, obesity and other health problems from birth.
Following are the types of sugar test that are done for screening gestational diabetes:
- Initial glucose challenge: In this type of diabetes screening, you are allowed to drink a syrupy glucose solution. After one hour, your blood sugar level test is done. If your blood sugar level is below 140mg/dL then you have a normal range of blood sugar. Otherwise, your doctor will start medications for treating gestational diabetes.
- Follow-up glucose tolerance testing: It is another kind of test in which you will be asked to fast overnight then fasting blood sugar level is measured. After fasting sugar is tested, you will have to drink a solution which has higher concentration of sugar. In this way, your blood sugar test is done every hour over a period of three hours. You will likely to have gestational diabetes if any of the two readings are higher than the normal set values.
Taking the blood glucose test done at home
Getting the blood test done is convenient. There are a variety of home kits available with which a person can do random plasma glucose test. Diabetes test kit includes glucometer and glucose meter strip. Instructions will be provided on the kit itself. Mainly, it includes pricking your finger tip to get the blood out. This blood is then put on the glucose meter strip which is then inserted into glucometer. Within 20-30 seconds, you get your results.
Continuous glucose monitoring systems are also there which helps in tracking your blood glucose values. This type of system includes glucose sensor which is inserted under your skin and a wearable device that shows you the results. Such systems alert you when your blood sugar levels goes high or low.
Treatments for type-2, type-1 and gestational diabetes
You need to discuss with your doctor first about the increase in your blood sugar level. According to the values of your glucose levels, your treatment will be decided. Generally, type-1 diabetes is treated with temporary Insulin shots while type-2 and gestational diabetes can be managed by keeping a check on your blood glucose level.
Along with these, you need to adopt a healthy lifestyle to keep your diabetes in control. Avoid bad habits like drinking alcohol and smoking, eat healthy meals, exercise regularly and keep your weight under control to manage your diabetes. Stress is another common cause that can trigger diabetes after deregulating your hormones. Therefore, stress management is another effective way to keep your diabetes under control.
Is diabetes curable?
What sample is required for diagnosing diabetes?
In most of the tests for diabetes, blood sample is taken. Mainly, plasma of your blood is considered to diagnose diabetes. In urine test for diabetes, sample of urine is taken.
Where can I get the blood test for diabetes done?
One can easily find hundreds of pathologies in nearby locations where you can get the diabetes test done. There are some pathology labs which are providing online facilities as well. You just have to make a booking for sample collection. Their representative will come to your place for collecting the sample. You can easily view your online sugar test report.
What is the cost of random blood sugar test?
The cost of RBS Test varies from one pathological lab to another. It also varies from city to city. However, the cost is very nominal.
What are the side effects of diabetes blood test?
Diabetes blood test is known to have low risk and no side effects. However, some people may experience soreness or swelling at the site from where blood is extracted.