Diabetes Test & Blood Glucose Level Normal Values, Procedure and Cost

Medically Reviewed By: Dr. Hardik Bambhania, M.B.B.S, Consultant Diabetologist April 18, 2022

Last updated on September 18th, 2023

Blood sugar or glucose is an important constituent of blood that gives energy to your body. When the amount of blood sugar goes beyond a normal limit, a person becomes diabetic.

This overall degrades the person’s health over a period of time. Diabetes basically increases the risk of heart stroke, kidney failure, eye diseases, hearing impairments and many other health complications.

Therefore, tracking your blood sugar level is important by getting the diabetes blood test done. Read this blog to learn about a list of blood sugar tests with average cost in India.

Read More: Is Type 2 Diabetes Curable/Reversible?

Detect Different Types of Diabetes

It normally takes time for the symptoms of diabetes to appear. If your diabetes is not diagnosed at the early stage or a sugar level test is not done even after noting any symptoms, it can lead to several health complications. Therefore, many doctors, health care practitioners and those who are health conscious prefer to get the sugar test done regularly. Sugar level test not only helps them to diagnose their diabetes and its type but also helps in diabetes management.

There are mainly three types of diabetes:

  • Type-2 diabetes
  • Type-1 diabetes
  • Gestational diabetes

Read More: How to Reverse Diabetes Permanently?

For diagnosing each type of diabetes, there are different types of tests done. However, fasting plasma glucose and random blood glucose tests are common types of diabetes tests. Also, anyone wanting to know their blood sugar levels can take a sugar level test. However, your risk for diabetes increases if:

  • You are overweight
  • Have high blood pressure
  • Are older than 45 years or
  • Have a family history of diabetes

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Normal Range of Glucose Level

A healthy person, who does not have diabetes has a normal fasting glucose range of 72-99 mg/dL. While their blood sugar test for post-glucose range can be upto 140 mg/dL after 2 hours of meal.

People with diabetes, either type-1 or type-2, have a normal range of blood sugar level up to 100 mg/dL while fasting. However, it can be upto 180 mg/dL after getting a blood sugar test post 2 hours of a meal.

The normal range of urine glucose levels is up to 14 mg/dL. If you are going for a blood sugar test and your urine glucose level is higher, then you have diabetes.

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 Blood Glucose Range

Condition Fasting Values Ref Range Post Meal Values Ref Range
Non-Diabetic 72-99 mg/dL Up to 140 mg/dL
Type 1 Diabetic Up to 100 mg/dL Up to 180 mg/dL
Type 2 Diabetic Up to 100 mg/dL Up to 180 mg/dL
Urine Glucose Up tp 14 mg/dL

Read More: 15 Ways To Lower Your Insulin Levels Naturally

Tests for Diabetes Type-2

Tests for Diabetes Type-2

In a person with diabetes type-2, the body produces enough insulin but is not able to use it efficiently. There are a number of symptoms that indicate that a person is diabetic.

Blood test for diabetes is done for diagnosing or tracking diabetes type-2. Some of these sugar tests are:

  • Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test: If you are going for an FPG test, you are supposed to give the blood sample on an empty stomach or after fasting. For this blood test for diabetes, blood is taken from the vein in the arm or your fingertip to calculate your blood sugar amount. If your blood sugar level is 99mg/dL or lower, then you have FBS normal range. People with prediabetes have a normal value of 100 to 125 mg/dL. Those who have sugar levels higher than 126mg/dL have diabetes.

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Fasting Plasma Blood Glucose

Normal Less than 100 mg/dL
Prediabetes 100 to 125 mg/dL
Diabetes 126 mg/dL and higher

Random Plasma Glucose (RPG) test: In a random blood sugar test, you are not required to fast. In this diagnostic test for diabetes, you can give blood even after the meals. A doctor can prescribe you this type of diabetes test when you have unintended weight loss, partial loss of vision, frequent urination, or dehydration. If your random sugar range is 200 mg/dL or higher, then you have diabetes.

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Random Plasma Glucose Test

Plasma Glucose Test Normal Diabetes
Random Below 200 mg/dL 200 mg/dL or more

Hemoglobin A1c test: Average sugar test levels are determined in this diagnostic test for diabetes. The average blood glucose level is measured over the past three months. People with diabetes get this test done so that they can track their blood sugar levels. When the Hemoglobin A1c level is below 5.7%, then you have a normal diabetes level. You have prediabetes if your HbA1c level is between 5.7 and 6.4%, while the higher values show you have diabetes.

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HbA1c and Blood Sugar 

A1C% Average Blood Sugar mg/dL
4 68
5 97
6 126
7 152
8 183
9 212
10 240
11 269
12 298
13 326
14 355


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Tests for Diabetes Type-1 

Tests for Diabetes Type-1

It is a bit difficult to diagnose diabetes type-1. Generally, a lot of people do not see any symptoms of diabetes type-1 other than feeling fatigue. Hence, your doctor can ask you to get a diabetes test done. Also, if there is a history of diabetes in your family then also you can be asked for a diabetes test.

Some of the common tests for diabetes type-1 :

  • Urine test: Doctors may ask you to take the Urine sugar test procedure if they suspect that you may have type-1 diabetes. When your body stops making insulin, ketone bodies are produced when fat tissue is used for energy needs. Therefore, to diagnose diabetes, the level of ketone body is check-in a urine sample. A specialized dipstick is dipped into a sample of urine to know the glucose level.

Read More: Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes

  • C-peptide: C-peptide is produced by the pancreas. If a person suffers from diabetes, then the production of C-peptide also gets lowered along with the production of insulin. Like other tests for diabetes, in this test also a blood sample is taken via syringe. The normal range of C-peptide is between 0.5 and 2.0 nanograms per milliliter. These values can fluctuate too high or low when your body produces high or low insulin respectively.
  • Insulin autoantibodies: This type of test helps in detecting antibodies that target insulin produced in your body. The immune system of people with diabetes type1 targets and destroys insulin.

Apart from these, the Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test and Random Plasma Glucose (RPG) test are also done to diagnose type-1 diabetes. Hemoglobin A1c may not be efficient in giving accurate results in diabetes type-1.

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Tests Conducted to Check Diabetes in Patients

Diagnostic Tests Checks Condition Avg. Cost of Test of Sugar Test
Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test 72-99 mg/dL Rs.80 – 300
Random Plasma Glucose (RPG) test Up to 100 mg/dL Rs.50 – 300
Hemoglobin A1C Test Up to 100 mg/dL Rs.200 – 800
Urine Sugar Fasting Up to 14 mg/dL Rs.50 – 200
C-peptide Up to 14 mg/dL Rs.700 – 1200
Insulin Autoantibodies Up to 14 mg/dL Rs. 1200 – 2500


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Tests for Gestational diabetes

Tests for Gestational diabetes

During pregnancy, some women are diagnosed with gestational diabetes. It is a condition that happens when your body cannot efficiently use the insulin it needs to support your pregnancy. It is mainly caused due to hormonal changes in your body during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can affect the growth of the baby in the womb and may lead to breathing issues, obesity, and other health problems from birth. Hence, getting a sugar pregnancy test is a must.

Following are the types of sugar tests that are done for screening for gestational diabetes:

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  • Initial glucose challenge: In this type of diabetes screening, you are allowed to drink a syrupy glucose solution. After one hour, your blood sugar level test is done. If your blood sugar level is below 140 mg/dL, then you have a normal range of blood sugar. Otherwise, your doctor will start medications for treating gestational diabetes.
  • Follow-up glucose tolerance testing: It is another sugar pregnancy test in which you will be asked to fast overnight, and then your fasting blood sugar level is measured. After fasting sugar is tested, you will have to drink a solution that has a higher concentration of sugar. In this way, your blood sugar test is done every hour over a period of three hours. You will likely have gestational diabetes if any of the two readings are higher than the normal set values.

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Types of Blood Sugar Tests

Managing diabetes effectively requires regular monitoring and testing to ensure blood sugar levels are within a healthy range. There are several types of tests available to diagnose and manage diabetes. Let’s explore the various tests used to detect and monitor diabetes.

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List of Sugar Test Names

list of sugar test

  • Fasting Blood Sugar Test (FBS)
  • HbA1c Test (A1C test)
  • Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)
  • Random Blood Sugar Test
  • Glycated Albumin Test
  • Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM)
  • Postprandial Blood Sugar Test

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Let’s understand all types of blood sugar tests in detail

  1. Fasting Blood Sugar Test (FBS): FBS is often the initial test for diabetes diagnosis. A blood sample is taken after fasting for at least 8 hours. A reading above 126 mg/dL indicates diabetes.
  2. A1C Test: Talking of different sugar test name, everyone’s heard of the HbA1c test. The A1C test provides an average blood sugar level over time. An A1C of 6.5% or higher indicates diabetes (prediabetes: 5.7 to 6.4).
  3. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT): This test helps diagnose gestational diabetes and can also identify prediabetes. You fast overnight, then drink a sugary solution, and blood samples are taken at intervals to observe how your body metabolizes glucose.
  4. Random Blood Sugar Test: Another in the list of sugar test name is random blood sugar test. This test measures blood sugar at any time. A reading above 200 mg/dL may indicate diabetes.
  5. Glycated Albumin Test: Another diabetes test name is the glycated albumin test. This test reflects short-term blood sugar control, which is useful for monitoring recent changes in blood sugar levels.
  6. Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM): CGM involves a small sensor under your skin that records blood sugar levels continuously, helping manage diabetes more effectively.
  7. Postprandial Blood Sugar Test: Another sugar test name is postprandial blood sugar test. This test assesses how your body processes sugar after eating, helping to gauge the impact of meals on blood sugar.

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Blood Sugar Test Price

Most of the blood sugar tests are generally affordable and come easy on the pocket. However, the diabetes test price may differ as per various factors like city, area, diagnostic centers and additional facilities like home sample collection and more.

It’s essential to check with local healthcare providers or diagnostic centers for the most up-to-date diabetes test price. Here are the approximate price ranges for the mentioned tests:

Fasting Blood Sugar Test (FBS): The sugar test cost for an FBS test in India typically ranges from ₹50 to ₹200 or more, depending on the laboratory and location.

A1C Test: The sugar test cost for an A1C test may be between ₹300 and ₹800 or more, depending on the lab and whether it’s bundled with other tests.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT): The sugar test cost for OGTT can range from ₹300 to ₹1,200 or more, depending on the location and the laboratory.

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Random Blood Sugar Test: The cost for a random blood sugar test may vary from ₹50 to ₹200 or more.

Glycated Albumin Test: The cost of this test can range from ₹500 to ₹1,500 or more.

Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM): CGM devices are generally more expensive. Diabetes test price for a CGM can range from ₹5,000 to ₹20,000 or more, depending on the type and brand of the CGM system.

Postprandial Blood Sugar Test: The cost of this test may be similar to the FBS test, ranging from ₹50 to ₹200 or more.

Please keep in mind that these are approximate price ranges, and actual costs may vary. It’s advisable to contact local diagnostic centers, hospitals, or healthcare providers in your area to get accurate and current pricing information for these diabetes tests in India. Additionally, health insurance coverage or government healthcare programs may partially or fully cover the costs of some of these tests.

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Getting Blood Glucose Test At Home

Getting the blood test done is convenient. There are a variety of home kits available with which a person can do random plasma glucose tests. The diabetes test kit includes a glucometer and glucose meter strip. Instructions will be provided on the kit itself. Mainly, it includes pricking your fingertip to get the blood out. This blood is then put on the glucose meter strip which is then inserted into the glucometer. Within 20-30 seconds, you get your results.

Continuous glucose monitoring systems are also there which help in tracking your blood glucose values. This type of system includes a glucose sensor that is inserted under your skin and a wearable device that shows you the results. Such systems alert you when your blood sugar levels go high or low.

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Treatments for Type-2, Type-1, and Gestational Diabetes

You need to discuss with your doctor first about the increase in your blood sugar level. According to the values of your glucose levels, your treatment will be decided. Generally, type-1 diabetes is treated with temporary Insulin shots while type-2 and gestational diabetes can be managed by keeping a check on your blood glucose level.

Along with these, you need to adopt a healthy lifestyle to keep your diabetes in control. Avoid bad habits like drinking alcohol and smoking, eat healthy meals, exercise regularly, and keep your weight under control to manage your diabetes. Stress is another common cause that can trigger diabetes after deregulating your hormones. Therefore, stress management is another effective way to keep your diabetes under control.

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What test shows diabetes?

Several tests can indicate diabetes. The most common ones include fasting blood sugar (FBS) test, A1C test, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Elevated levels in these tests, in conjunction with symptoms and clinical evaluation, can indicate the presence of diabetes.

How to test for type 2 diabetes at home?

You can test for type 2 diabetes at home using a blood glucose meter. Follow the instructions provided with the meter, prick your finger, and measure your blood sugar levels. However, for a definitive diagnosis, consult a healthcare professional for comprehensive testing.

When is gestational diabetes test done?

The gestational diabetes test is typically done between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy. It involves drinking a sugary solution and measuring blood sugar levels to check for gestational diabetes.

What is a diabetes screening test?

A diabetes screening test is a preliminary test to check for diabetes risk. It often involves a fasting blood sugar test or an A1C test. If the results suggest a risk, further diagnostic test for diabetes is performed.

How to take a diabetes test?

To take a diabetes test, consult a healthcare provider. They will tell you the specific diabetes test name based on your risk factors and symptoms. Common tests include FBS, A1C, and OGTT. Fasting is often required for accurate results in some tests.

What is PP in a sugar test?

‘PP’ in a sugar test stands for ‘postprandial. A postprandial blood sugar test measures your blood sugar levels 1-2 hours after eating a meal, helping to assess how your body processes sugar after eating.

How many types of sugar tests are there?

There are several types of sugar tests, including fasting blood sugar (FBS), A1C test, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), random blood sugar test, glycated albumin test, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and postprandial blood sugar test, among others.

How many hours to fast before a blood sugar test?

Typically, you should fast for at least 8 hours before a fasting blood sugar test (FBS). However, it’s essential to follow your healthcare provider’s specific instructions, as some tests may require different fasting durations.

How to test blood sugar?

You can test blood sugar using a blood glucose meter. Clean your finger, prick it with a lancet, collect a drop of blood on a test strip, and insert the strip into the meter. The meter will display your blood sugar level.

Can we drink water before fasting sugar test?

No, you should not drink water before a fasting blood sugar test. It’s essential to fast for at least 8 hours before the test to get accurate results. Drinking water may affect the test results.

How to test for diabetes at home?

To test for diabetes at home, you can use a blood glucose meter. Prick your finger to obtain a small blood sample, place it on a test strip, and insert the strip into the meter. The meter will display your blood sugar level. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) and random blood sugar tests can be done at home.

Is diabetes curable?

You can manage your diabetes with Insulin, medications and lifestyle change. However, till now there is no cure for diabetes type-2 and diabetes type-1. Whereas, gestational diabetes gets treated naturally when yours hormonal balance is maintained.

What sample is required for diagnosing diabetes?

In most of the tests for diabetes, blood sample is taken. Mainly, plasma of your blood is considered to diagnose diabetes. In urine test for diabetes, sample of urine is taken.

Where can I get the blood test for diabetes done?

One can easily find hundreds of pathologies in nearby locations where you can get the diabetes test done. There are some pathology labs which are providing online facilities as well. You just have to make a booking for sample collection. Their representative will come to your place for collecting the sample. You can easily view your online sugar test report.

What is the cost of random blood sugar test?

The cost of RBS Test varies from one pathological lab to another. It also varies from city to city.  However, the cost is very nominal.

What are the side effects of diabetes blood test?

Diabetes blood test is known to have low risk and no side effects. However, some people may experience soreness or swelling at the site from where blood is extracted.

Last Updated on by Dr. Damanjit Duggal 


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