There are over 42.2 crore diabetes patients in the world. With rising diabetes, what’s essential is its diagnosis and available treatments. Exploring methods of diagnosis today, we will explore and explain the urine glucose test. Read this informational blog to know it all.
What is a Urine Glucose Test?
The urine glucose test measures the amount of sugar present in urine. This test is also known as urine sugar test, glycosuria, or glucosuria test. Glucose, which is a type of sugar, is the body’s energy source. The carbs you eat get converted into glucose.
Generally, normal blood sugar in urine is very little or nothing at all. When there is a high glucose level in the blood, the kidneys try to flush out excess glucose through urine. So, high sugar in the urine means high blood sugar in the body.
This test detects the presence of blood sugar in urine levels. If there is a higher-than-normal presence of glucose in urine, for most individuals, it indicates they have diabetes. Then, the doctor will do further tests, such as different blood sugar tests, and start the required treatment.
However, high levels of glucose in urine don’t necessarily mean you have diabetes. If you have high glucose in urine with normal blood sugar levels, you may have kidney disorders. Although uncommon, kidney diseases like renal glycosuria and Fanconi syndrome have symptoms of releasing glucose in urine.
Why is the Urine Sugar Test done?
The urine sugar test is performed to analyze the present composition of urine. Through this urine glucose test, doctors/pathologists check different urine compounds, like sugar content, minerals, chemicals, etc. The process of urinalysis is done in the urine sugar test, as well as checking ketones in urine. Through this, pathologists detect the presence of sugar in urinalysis.
Earlier, a urine sugar test was done to diagnose diabetes. However, later on, urine test for diabetes detection was not preferred due to its inaccuracy. The sugar level in urine test didn’t reflect the sugar levels inside the body. Therefore, doctors now prefer blood sugar test over urine test for diabetes type 2 detection and treatment.
In the present scenario, your doctor may prescribe a urine glucose test only if blood sugar testing isn’t possible for you. There can be multiple reasons for this. One can be that your blood vessels or veins are smaller than usual. The second reason can be that repeated punctures on the skin have damaged it, so it requires healing. The third reason is a bit vague; however, some adults do have a phobia of syringes. So, a doctor in the preliminary stage may prescribe a urine glucose test.
How to perform a Urine Glucose Test?
The urine sugar test is done through a urine sample. The pathology lab will give you a urine glucose test kit, which consists of a cleaning wipe, a urine-collecting container, a pouch, and an instruction manual (not necessarily).
Follow the below-given instructions for a germ-free urine sample collection:
- Properly wash your hands with soap and wipe them dry.
- Open the container without putting your hands inside it.
- Clean your genital area with the cleaning wipe provided.
- For males, wipe the penis from the tip to the bottom. If there is a foreskin, pull it back before dropping urine in the container.
- For females, separate the vaginal labia and clean the area using the wipe provided.
- Start urinating and then stop, and now urinate in the urine-collecting container. The container should make no contact with your body.
- Collect the urine according to the container marking or as told by the lab professionals.
- After urinating again, please wash your hands and wipe them off.
- Seal the container by tightly capping it and putting it in the pouch provided.
- Rewash your hands with soap.
Women on periods and adults having hemorrhoids with bleeding should inform the doctor and the lab.
Read More: Connection Between PCOS and Diabetes
Results of Urine Glucose Test
The level of sugar and urine is normally very low, i.e. between 0 to 0.8 mmol/L. Anything higher than this is a cause of concern. High fasting urine sugar can be a symptom of type 2 diabetes. Once high glucose in the urine is detected, your doctor will prescribe blood sugar tests.
In some women, blood sugar levels rise in pregnancy. Pregnant women have higher sugar presence in urine than other women. High sugar in urine levels can be an indication of gestational diabetes. Therefore, they need regular monitoring. Such women should perform a urine sugar test for pregnancy at once.
Blood sugar is low, but sugar in urine is high
When your blood sugar is low, and you still have high sugar presence in the urine, this shows you have kidney disorders. In the rare kidney disease called renal glycosuria, one has high glucose in urine with normal blood sugar. In this disease, the kidneys aren’t able to stop the release of sugar in the urine. There are elevated ketones in urine. It is also called Fanconi syndrome. Apart from high sugar in urine levels, checking ketones in urine is a must.
When the readings of your urine glucose test are higher than normal, the doctor advises treatments to make glucose in urine negative. Therefore, sticking with the treatment becomes essential. Increased glucose and protein in urine can make you stressed. However, it’s no time to panic. Rather, handle things calmly.
Sugar and Urine Glucose Test
Diabetes is considered the most common cause of high glucose in urine. The insulin hormone controls the sugar content in the blood. When there is insulin dysfunction, it causes diabetes. Other signs of diabetes include:
- Excessive thirst
- Sudden weight gain or loss
- Drying up of the mouth
- Vision getting blurred
- Excessive and frequent urination
There are two types of diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes
- Type 2 diabetes
In type 1 diabetes, the body can’t generate enough insulin hormone. It is an autoimmune condition, and external insulin is injected into the body.
In type 2 diabetes, body cells become resistant to insulin hormone and can’t use it properly. The reason for this type of diabetes is a sedentary lifestyle and genetics.
In both types, high glucose in urine is detected. Blood sugar tests help us detect which type.
Precautions to take before performing Urine Glucose Test
Well, there aren’t any specific precautions to take when going for a urine sugar test. However, it would be best to inform the doctor about the prescribed and over-the-counter meds you are on. This is because some medicines can mess up your levels of glucose in urine glucose tests. However, only stop the medicines if the doctor advises them to.
Risks involved in performing Urine Glucose Test
There is absolutely no risk in having a urine sugar test, and the risk of infection is the lowest. Since this test is performed by you at your home and the kit provided by the lab is sealed, this test is good to go. The urine sugar test is also safer than blood sugar tests. However, it is less accurate than the latter.
Diabetes may result in cloudy urine when there is an excess of sugar accumulated in your urine. Your urine can also smell fruity or sweet.
Use the following remedies:
1. Cut down the sugar and processed foods from your diet.
2. The diet must contain mostly whole foods with enough veggies.
3. Also, carb intake must be lowered to below 180 grams per day.
4. Have more and more water instead of soda or juice.
5. Carry out daily exercises and lose weight.
Generally, sugar is not present in urine. But, in a diabetic patient, sugar may pass from the kidneys into the urine.
In many individuals, blood sugar levels of more than 10 mmol of glucose per liter of plasma would result in sugar coming into the urine. This level can also be termed the ‘renal threshold’ for sugar.
The information included at this site is for educational purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for medical treatment by a healthcare professional. Because of unique individual needs, the reader should consult their physician to determine the appropriateness of the information for the reader’s situation.